Science Teaching III
Discussion MethodLike discovery method, discussion method contrasts with lecture method. Discussion method is student-centre and it is based on the philosophy that “knowledge arises within the person and not from any external source”. In the discussion method, the teacher’s role is to act as moderator. Discussion in a science classroom should be differentiated from lecturing. It is not proper for a science teacher to say “let us discuss the process of fermentation”, when he really wanted to say “I will tell you the process of fermentation”.
Advantages of Discussion Method
- Discussion method can be used to introduce a lesson using motivating activities.
- The teacher and the students are opportune to discuss the procedures of activities.
- Positive interpersonal relationship could be developed through discussion method. This is because the pupils interact with their colleagues irrespective of gender difference and academic ability.
- Discussion method inculcates confidence in the pupils through frequent exchange of ideas between the pupils and the teacher.
- Students gain knowledge on their own through active participation and involvement in the lesson.
Demerits of Discuss Method
- Discussion method is time consuming because students” are apt to ask many questions some of which are irrelevant and even when the questions are pertinent, teacher may not be able to answer all the questions.
- Discussion method does not allow for easy coverage of the syllabus.
- Discussion method cannot be used for all topics because some topics lead themselves to discussion while others do not.
- Students that had weak background on the topic being discussed become bored and disinterested in the lesson if they are not actively involve.
- Discussion method promotes indiscipline among the students especially in a large class. It is often difficult for the teacher to maintain effective class control.
Guidelines for Effective use of Discussion Method
- The topic for discussion should be brought to the level of the students.
- The topic must not only lead itself to discussion but it must be one about which the students have good background.
- The teacher must be a good moderator, he should not allow few students to dominate the discussion.
- The teacher should ensure that the students’ view points are pertinent to the topic of discussion.
- Since discussion method often start with question, the should avoid asking vague questions.
- The leader in each group should have good knowledge of the topic under discussion.
- The teacher should summarize the key points that are relevant to the topic under discussion.
The project method is employed to individualize instruction. The method is meant to provide for the needs of individual students the opportunities to fulfill themselves. This method is important in our educational system because it is a prerequisite for students to write project before graduating from higher institutions.“Unlike verification experiments in science, project work requires some element of originality. Students are given free hand to look for problem which are of special interest to them and proffer solution to the problem. Students often obtain researchable topics by.”
- Interaction with their colleagues
- Reading the science journals
- Reading abstracts from papers presented at workshops, seminars and conferences.
- Classroom and day to day experience
- Science textbooks, field trips and visit to museums and Zoos.
- Browsing in the internet
Advantages of Project Method
- It enables students to develop critical thinking
- Project method widens the knowledge of the pupils
- Project writing instill self confidence in the pupils
- It enable learners the opportunity to explore and practicalise the theoretical concepts.
- Good project writing may help to cure societal ills since the findings may be of great benefit to the citizenry.
- Since the findings may be of great benefit to the citizenry.
- Project work especially group project helps learners to develop co-operative attitude.
Demerits of Project Method
- Project is highly expensive in terms of money, time and energy.
- Project method does not promote easy coverage of the syllabus.
- In a group project, the level of participation of individual member is not equal.
- Some students develop negative attitude toward science through project work.